This is our first post in space category so we thought let’s start from basics, a rocket is a non-air breathing device made by humans to see and understood the elaboration of space. Mainly Rocket is used for mass transfer in space. Rocket does not use air for the burning process it carries own oxidizer for propulsion. Space exploration is not possible without a rocket. Use of rocket is focused on mass transfer and research purpose. Rocket can be divided into two or more stages.
“Research is what I’m doing when I don’t know what I’m doing”
– Wernher von Braun (inventor of V-2 rocket)
In multistage rocket after traveling predetermined distance, rocket automatically separates useless parts. The process of separation controlled by controlling units.The escape velocity from earth atmosphere is 11.2 km/s, so rocket needs minimum 11.2 km/s to escape earth gravitational area. thrust does not increase rapidly. Rocket thrust starts with 40-60m/s. and with changes with time, velocity increases and mass of rocket decreases, that speed up the rocket at the middle of atmosphere it reaches up to 8km/s. and 8km is a requirement for reaching atmospheric earth’s orbit. normally rocket traveling speed in the vacuum or in deep space varies between 7-13km/s.
Types of rocket
- The basis of propellant – monopropellant, bipropellant.
- On the basis of stages – single stage, multi-stage.
The principle of a rocket is based on newton’s third law (every action has an equal and opposite reaction). Rocket engines generate thrust and push air to move in upward direction. After crossing atmospheric area gas particles are push each other to generate thrust. The pressure developed by the rocket engine is very high. The pressure factor develops by rocket nozzle depends on many factors like design, fuel, nozzle’s turbo pump etc.
Thrust shows the aerodynamic power of any rocket. Fuels are burned in the combustion chamber and release high-pressure gas. High-pressure gas is emitted by the nozzle. mostly de Laval type of nozzles is used for rockets. They increase the velocity of emission per second. Nowadays special type of rocket engine is used for propulsion called cryogenic engine. that type of engine stored fuel below zero-degree temperature, these fuels are in liquid form. And fuel combustion process is done in cryogenic engine. The cryogenic engine has capable of carrying high weight satellite.
Combustion chamber and Rocket engine nozzle
During combustion process temperature at thrust chamber is very high so a specific type of material required for the combustion chamber. Generally, rocket thrust chamber made of iron and its alloys. The necessary properties of material for rocket thrust chamber is high density. Minimum density requires for combustion chamber is 7000kg/m3. This is the main reason of heavyweight.
The nozzle is specially designed to increase per unit pressure. Same as combustion chamber there is a requirement for nozzle (high melting temperate material). The need of cooling is necessary for both combustion chamber and nozzle. There are many methods of cooling. regenerative cooling is one of an effective method of cooling. in this method using fuel pass through tubes and some oxidizer is used from the cryogenic group for cooling purpose.For the testing facility of a rocket engine, a specified location is selected. mostly this area is situated near sea level and fully controllable. accident risks are negligible. Every rocket engine needs to test before take-off. some rocket engine names are Raptor, Vikas, c-20, merlin etc.
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