Genetic research has led to immense growth in the area of cloning. The scientists are developing new ways to cloning the genes. Through the cloning, information and many possibilities have emerged. In fact, the new construction of a group of organisms is called the clone. And the method used to create a clone is called cloning. Generally, it is prepared in the lab. Genetic engineers are succeeded to cloning cells, plants, and microorganisms.
1. Cell cloning
Creating a group of genetically new cells from any one cell is called cell cloning. Cloning of unicellular organisms is possible through enzymes and bacteria. Using this technique, the cell can be found separately. Through the Somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), many research related clones produced. this is also called research cloning. Treatment of many kinds of diseases is possible only by the change of cells, in such diseases the cell gets infected. The purpose of this method is to treat these types of diseases by making a clone with the SCNT method.
2. Gene cloning
In the method of cloning the gene is identified and entered into carrier DNA. This carrier builds new copied genes through the DNA-fed cell. There is some phase of cloning of the genes.
- DNA is extracted from an organism by enzymes, the gene is separated from DNA into small pieces.
- DNA is transported to plasmids through the agent. DNA and cut plasmids are combined DNA pieces will combine with the cut plasmids and form recombinant DNA
3. Plant Cloning
Preparing a clone of a plant is a simple task. Plant clone is prepared by the techniques of tissue culture. Select a part of the plant for cloning. The leaves are removed in the compost by removing the leaves. Some plant hormones develop new roots. In a few weeks, they come and take a plant. In this method, an undivided group of cells is formed which is called callus. Such plants can be planted or planted in the house.
4. Organism Cloning
We have seen some films in the making of human clones, and have read in Science Fiction Stories. This has not been possible right now. Scientists have succeeded in creating clones of many animals. Genetically used SCNT for animal cloning. In this method, the nucleus of the haploid egg is replaced with the nucleus of the diploid cell of the same organ. After this, it is transferred to the uterus of the surrogate mother. This is a very complicated process of cloning.
5. DNA cloning
See also: Seven Things You Should Know About DNA
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